Posts tagged [Companion Animal]



    IVDD is a condition where the cushioning discs between the vertebrae of the spinal column bulge or burst into the spinal cord space. These discs then press on the spinal cord causing pain, nerve damage, or even paralysis.


    Dog breeds that are predisposed to IVDD include Dachshund, Beagle, Basset Hound, and Shih Tzu, however cases of IVDD have been spotted in Jack Russell as well as mixed breeds.


    Dogs would usually present with sudden weakness or lameness of the hind legs, anxiousness, back pain, unwillingness to eat and climb stairs and sometimes loss of bladder and bowel control. We recommend taking your pet to the vet as soon as any of these symptoms surface since prompt treatment is required for the best chance of recovery.

    How will the vet confirm IVDD?

    The vet will do a physical and neurological exam – feeling the back, testing the front and hind legs for reflexes, etc. This will determine the degree of spinal column damage. The vet might also need to take an x-ray of the back and possibly do a myelogram (contrast medium is put into the space between the vertebral column and the spinal cord). This will determine the exact location of the lesion for surgical repair as well as the extent of the damage to the spinal cord.


    Depending on the severity of the condition, treatment can range from conservative to surgical. Conservative care includes very strict confinement for 2-6 weeks and medicinal treatments such as steroids or anti-inflammatories, muscle relaxants and nutraceuticals such as Chondrofocus to reduce pain and the swelling of the spinal cord. After a period of resting, your pet is allowed to gradually return to normal activity


    If the damage is too severe, emergency surgery is needed to open up the space. This is done by removing a portion of the bony vertebrae over the spinal cord and the disc material. Dogs that undergo surgery soon after diagnosis have a better chance of recovery. Even after surgery, however, the dog may not recover fully.


    Dogs will be treated with anti-inflammatories, nutraceuticals and muscle relaxants and will receive physiotherapy. Owners might need to assist with the toilet routine for a while. In dogs that lose sensation in the limbs, recovery can occur up to two months after the incident. Dogs that do not regain the function of their hind legs can maintain a high quality of life using a cart and the owners assisting with emptying the bladder.


    It is recommended to keep your dog at a lower weight; this will reduce stress on the neck and back.

    Using a harness when walking will also reduce stress on the neck

    Prevent your dog from jumping on and off furniture by building ramps

    Give prophylactic nutraceuticals such as Chondrofocus containing Resveratrol, Avocado/Soybean Unsaponifiables, MSM and Vit E and C.

    Do not give supplements containing Chondroitin Sulphate and Glucosamine as this might have a negative effect on the disc composition

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    What is spaying and neutering of dogs and cats? It is the surgical removal of the reproductive organs.

    Why is it necessary?

    Every year thousands of unwanted dogs and cats, including puppies and kittens are needlessly destroyed. The good news is that every pet owner can make a difference. By having your dog or cat surgically sterilised, you will do your part to prevent the birth of unwanted puppies and kittens and you will enhance your pet’s health and quality of life.

    What are the benefits of spaying and neutering?

    Both operations lead to the improved long-term health, prevent unwanted litters and eliminate many behaviour problems associated with the mating instinct.


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    Vaccinations protect your pet from several highly contagious diseases such as canine distemper, parvovirus infection and respiratory tract infections. It also protects against transmissible diseases such as rabies that also pose a risk to humans. Vaccination will not cure a pet that is already sick. Only healthy pets should be vaccinated. A veterinarian or a veterinary nurse administers vaccines.

    Are there any risks?

    The majority of pets experience no adverse effects following vaccination. A small number of animals may become feverish and have a reduced appetite or develop urticaria (raised areas on the skin). These reactions are mild and of short duration. In extremely rare cases, an animal may experience a severe, life-threatening allergic reaction. Such an animal can be treated successfully if attended to immediately. The possibility of such an event occurring does not justify considering not to vaccinate your pets, however, as that will leave them susceptible to a range of life-threatening infectious diseases.

    Against what diseases should I have my pet vaccinated?

    Vaccines used for the protection of pets are currently divided into core vaccines and non- core vaccines. The former are vaccines that should be given to all pets in all regions because they protect against diseases that are widespread and have serious effects. Non- core vaccines are only given strategically when a particular disease is prevalent in an area or when circumstances predispose to the appearance of the disease. Non-core vaccines are only administered after discussion with your veterinarian to evaluate the risks.

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